CalendarThese pages list the key dates in the history of the sailing navies of the world.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30    

01 June

1666 First day of The Four Days Battle, off the North Foreland between the English fleet of 56 ships, under George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, and the Dutch fleet of 84 ships, under Lt.-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter.  
  1676 Danish-Dutch fleet of 25 ships-of-the-line, 10 frigates and some minor ships, under Dutch General Admiral Tromp and Admiral Niels Juel, defeats a Swedish force of 27 ships-of-the-line, 11 frigates and some minor ships, under Admiral Lorentz Creutz,.off Oland, Sweden  
  1677 The Danish Baltic Squadron of 10 ships-of-the-line and 3 frigates, under Admiral Niels Juel, defeated a Swedish squadron of 7 ships-of-the-line, 2 frigates and 2 armed cutters, under Admiral Sjöblad, off Moen  

Glorious First of June. British fleet under Lord Howe defeat French fleet under Louis Thomas Villaret  de Joyeuse.

  1795 Adam Duncan promoted to full  Admiral.  
  1797 HMS Astraea (32), Cptn. Richard Dacres, captures the Dutch privateer Stuiver (10) off the Scaw  
  1808 HMS Unite (38), Cptn. Patrick Capmbell, captured Nettuno and Teulie in the Adriatic.  

HMS Shannon (38), Cptn. Philip Bowes Vere Broke, captures USS Chesapeake (36) Cptn. James Lawrence, off Boston Harbor

  1814 Start of 4 day British operation in the River Patuxent.  
02 June 1653 First day of Battle of the Gabbard Bank, off the coast of Suffolk. English fleet of 100 ships under Generals at Sea George Monck and Richard Deane and Admirals John Lawson and William Penn beat of 98 Dutch ships under Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp and Vice-admiral Witte de With.

On second day the English were joined by Admiral Robert Blake, but Tromp decided to attack but was routed, the English chasing them until well in the evening.

  1676 Battle of Palermo. A French force led by Abraham Duquesne attacked a Spanish force supported by a Dutch maritime expedition force. Largely because the Dutch and Spanish ships were at bay making repairs from an earlier a battle, the French fleet destroyed four Spanish and three Dutch ships with fireships.  
  1773 George III reviewed the English Fleet at Portsmouth.  
  1779 HMS Glasgow (20) burnt by accident in Montego Bay, Jamaica  
  1787 HMS Pelican (10) foundered  

HMS Diamond Rock capitulated.

Boats of HMS Loire (40), Cptn. Frederick Maitland, cut out privateer felucca Esperamza from Camarinas Bay. Another privateer was taken but abandoned and 3 merchant vessels were destroyed.

03 June 1665 Battle of Lowestoft. English fleet of 109 ships, under James Stuart, Duke of York, badly defeat Dutch fleet of 103 ships, under Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam (Killed in Action). The Dutch lost 17 ships and the English lost 1 ship. top
  1785 Order to sell last ship remaining in Continental Navy, frigate Alliance . No other US Navy ships were authorized until 1794.  
04 June 1673 Engagement between the Anglo-French fleet under Prince Rupert and the Dutch under De Ruyter.  Second Battle of Schooneveld. Anglo-French fleet of 86 ships, under Rupert of the Rhine, engaged Dutch fleet of 64 ships, under Michiel de Ruyter. top
  1800 HMS Thames (32), Cptn. Lukin, and HMS Cynthia (18) silenced the forts at Quiberon which were afterwards destroyed by a party of troops.  
  1805 Boats of HMS Loire (40), Cptn. Frederick Maitland, destroyed a battery and fort at Muros Bay, took the privateer Confiance and burnt privateer Belier .  
  1808 4 Danish gunboats, under Lt. Christian Wulff, defeats the British gun-brig HMS Tickler, Lieut. John W. Skinner (Killed in Action), off Taars.  
  1812 Boats of HMS Medusa (32), Cptn. Bouverie, cut out and destroyed Dorade (14) at Arcasson near Bourdeaux.  
  1824 The Danish Navy's first steamship, the paddle steamer Kiel, arrives at Copenhagen from England.  
  1849 The Danish corvette Valkyrien, Andreas Polder, and the paddle steamer Gejser, Lt. Cmdr Jørgen P. F. Wulff, of the North Sea Squadron engages 3 Schleswig-Holstein naval paddle steamers, under Rear Ad. Bromme off Heligoland.  
05 June 1794 First officers of the U.S. Navy under the Constitution are appointed.  top
  1807 Boats of HMS Pomone (38), Cptn. Robert Barrie, captured gun-brig and 14 sail south of the Ile d'Yeu  
06 June 1758 Howe attacks St. Malo.  top
  1762 George Anson died  
  1800 HMS Impetueux (74), Cptn. Sir Edward Pellew, and consorts took two brigs, two sloops, two gun vessels and about 100 prisoners and destroyed the batteries ashore at Morbihan.  
  1806 A British prize schooner of HMS Port D'Espagne, Lt. James Pattison Stewart, captured Spanish privateer Mercedes  
  1827 HMS Cynthia Packet-Brig (6) wrecked off the Island of Barbados.  
07 June 1692 Port Royal, Jamaica destroyed by Earthquake and subsequent tsunami. top
  1777 HMS Fox (28), Cptn. Patrick Fotheringham, was taken by American frigates Hancock (32), Cpt. John Manley, and Boston (30), Cptn. Hector McNeil, off Newfoundland Banks.  
08 June 1794 HMS Crescent (36), Cptn. James Saumarez, HMS Druid (32), Cptn. Ellison, and HMS Eurydice (24), Cptn. Francis Cole, engaged French squadron off the West coast of Guernsey.. top
  1795 HMS Kingfisher (18) engaged a French convoy.  

HMS Unicorn (32), Cptn. Thomas Williams, and HMS Santa Margarita (36), Cptn. Thomas Byam Martin, captured Tribune (44), Commodore Moulson, and Tamise (42) to the westward of the Scillies. A corvette Legere escaped.

First day of 4 day campaign by HMS Arethusa (38), Cptn. Thomas Wolley, with three frigates, two sloops and army units capturing island of St. Vincent.

  1813 Boats of HMS Elizabeth (74), Cptn. Leveson Gower, and HMS Eagle (74), Cptn. Charles Rowley, defeated troops at Omago.  
  1830 Sloop-of-war Vincennes becomes first U.S. warship to circle the globe   
  1853 Commodore Matthew Perry arrives at Uraga, Japan to begin negotiations for a treaty with Japan  
09 June 1772

HMS Gaspee schooner, Lt. William Dudingston, burned at Namquid Point, Narragansett Bay by American colonists from Providence, Rhode Island.

  1795 HMS Mosquito captured a privateer.  
  1796 HMS Southampton (32), Cptn. James Macnamara, ccut out French corvette Utile (24) from Hyeres Bay  
  1799 Boats of HMS Success (32), Cptn. Shuldham Peard, cut out Belle Aurore.  

HMS Kangaroo (16), George Christopher Pulling, and HMS Speedy (14), Lord Thomas Cochrane, destroyed gunboats and took 3 brigs from under the battery of Oropeso

HMS Meleager (32), Cptn. Thomas Bladen Capel,  wrecked on the Triangles, Gulf of Mexico.

  1808 21 Danish gunboats and 12 mortar shallops, under Cmdr Johan C. Krieger, engages a British escorted convoy in the southern part of the Sound. HMS Turbulent (12) and 11 merchant ships are captured.  
10 June 1673 Rene Duguay-Trouin born in St. Malo, France. French privateer and naval officer, he captured 300 merchantmen and 20 warships during his career. top

HMS Chiffonne (36), Cptn. Charles Adamand, HMS Falcon (14), Cptn. George Sanders, HMS Clinker (14), Lt. Nisbet Glen, and the Frances hired armed cutter, engaged French gunboats Foudre (10), Cptn. Jacques-Felix-Emmanuel Hemelin, Audacieuse (10), Lt. Dominique Roquebert, and 7 others protecting a convoy off the coast of France.

  1809 HMS Amelia (38), Cptn. Frederick Paul rby, and HMS Statira captured French national vessels Mouche (16), Rejouie (8) and a schooner together with 2 luggers Legere and Notre Dame at Santander.  
11 June 1800

Boats of Rear Ad. Sir John B. Warrens's squadron, HMS Renown (74) Cptn. Eyles, HMS Fisgard (44), Cptn. T. Byam Martin, HMS Defence (74), Cptn. Lord H. Paulet, and HMS Unicorn (32), Cptn. Wilkinson, cut out gunboat Nochette (2) two armed chasse-maree and eight other vessels at St. Croix within the Penmarks. Twenty other vessels were run on to the rocks. 

  1808 Boats of HMS Euryalus (36), Cptn. George Heneage Dundas, and HMS Cruizer (18), George Charles M'Kenzie, burnt two large troop transports and captured a gun-vessel (2) off the Naskon.  

12 June

1652 English squadron under Sir George Ayscue overtook the Dutch outward bound East Indian fleet of forty merchantmen, and secured six prizes off the Lizard. top

HMS Royal Charles (80), not in commission, captured during dutch raid on Medway


General Assembly of the Crown Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations authorize the charter of two naval vessels "to protect the trade of the colony."

Jeremiah O'Brien & crew of the sloop Unity capture HMS Margaretta  schooner, Lt. James Moor (mortally wounded), in Machias Bay, Maine. Arguably the first naval battle of the American Revolution.


Boats of HMS Bacchante (38), Cptn. William Hoste, captured 24 vessels at Abruzza.


13 June

1796 HMS Dryad (36), Cptn. Lord Amelius Beauclerk, captured Proserpine (42). top
  1805 Boats of HMS Cambrian (40), Cptn. John Poo Beresford, captured Spanish privateer schooner Maria (14) to the east of Bermuda.  
  1829 HMS Mermaid survey ship, Samuel Nol, lost on Franklands Reef off Australia.  
14 June 1777

John Paul Jones takes command of Ranger

  1789 William Bligh and loyal crew of HMS Bounty arrive at Timor, off the coast of Java.  
  1803 HMS Immortalite (42), Cptn. Edward William Campbell Owen, HMS Jalouse (18), Christopher Strachey, and HMS Cruizer (18),  John Hancock, cut out Inabordable (4) and Commode (4) from Cap Blanc Nez.  

Boats of HMS Scout (18), William Raitt, stormed and captured the battery, spiked the guns and carried off 7 vessels at Cape Croisette, south of Marseilles.

Start of 5 day engagement in which HMS Latona (38), Cptn. Hugh Pigot, took Felicite (14)


HMS Superb (74), Cptn. Charles Paget, and HMS Nimrod (18), Nathaniel Mitchell, attacked Wareham at the head of Buzzard's Bay, and destroyed American ships Fair Trader (18), Independent (14), Fancy, Elizabeth and Nancy,together with a valuable cotton mill belonging to Boston merchants.

15 June 1744 Commodore George Anson, HMS Centurion (60, returned to Spithead after circumnavigation voyage top
  1775 Cptn. Abraham Whipple, Commodore of the Rhode Island Navy, in sloop Katy, captures the armed sloop Diana, tender to HMS Rose.  
  1783 HMS Shrewsbury (74) scuttled off Jamaica.  
  1797 HMS Fortune (14) wrecked near Oporto  
16 June 1798 Boats of HMS Aurora (28) Capt. Thomas Gordon Caulfield, destroyed two vessels. top
  1812 HMS Swallow (18), Cptn. Edward Reynolds Sibly, engaged Renard (16), Lt. Charles Baudin des Ardennes, and Goéland (14) Ens.Belin, near the island of Sainte-Marguerite.   
  1813 HMS Persian (18), Cdr. Charles Bertram, wrecked on the Silver Keys shoal just north of the island of Hispaniola  
  1897 HMS Foudroyant (80) driven on shore at Blackpool in a gale.   
17 June 1755 British fleet under Admiral Boscawen took Alcide (64), Captain Hocquart, and Lys (64) off Newfoundland. top
  1775 Cuthbert Collingwood promoted to Lieutenant  

HMS Milford (28) took Licorne.

HMS Arethusa (32), Samuel Marshall, engages French frigate Belle Poule (32) in the Channel

  1794 HMS Romney (50), William Paget, captured Sybille (44)  

Garrison defeated at island of Zupano, protecting Ragusa (Dubrovnik), by party from HMS Saracen (18), John Harper.

Boats of HMS Narcissus (32), Cptn. John Richard Lumley, took the American revenue schooner Surveyor in the York River in the Chesapeake.

  1815 HMS Pilot (18) John Toup Nicholas, engaged French frigate Legere off Cape Corse.  
  1833 USS Delaware enters drydock at Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk, VA, the first warship to enter a public drydock in the United States   
18 June 1778 HMS Foudroyant (80), Cptn. John Jervis, HMS Courageaux (74) and HMS Robust (74) captured French frigate Pallas (32) top
  1793 HMS Nymphe (36), Cptn. Edward Pellew, captured Cleopatra (40), Cptn. Jean Mullon (Killed in Action)  
  1809 HMS Sealark (4) lost at sea on the East coast of UK  

US declares war on Great Britain for impressment of sailors and interference with commerce

19 June 1798 HMS Aurora (28), Capt. Henry Digby, engaged off Adeira. top
  1807 Turkish fleet of 9 ships of the line, supported by 5 frigates and 5 small craft under Kapudan Pasha Seyit-Ali intercepted between Lemnos Island and Mount Athos by Russian fleet under Dmitry Senyavin of 10 ships of the line. Raphael (80), Cptn. Dmitry Lukin (Killed in Action), damaged Messudie (120), Seyit-Ali, and broke through the enemy's defence line also damaging Sed-ul-Bahr (84), Admiral Bekirbey, and 2 frigates before escaping. Tverdy (74), Admiral Senyavin, forced the leading Turkish ship to withdraw and the Turkish line being broken Seyit-Ali took flight. The fastest Russian vessels pursued. Selaphail (74), Cdr. Rozhnov, took Seid-ul-Bahr (84) and other ships cut off Besharet-Nyuma, as well as a frigate and a corvette which were set ablaze. Seyit-Ali was also forced to burn the lagging Tausu-Bahri (84) and a frigate in order to gain enough time to escape into the Dardanelles with his remaining vessels.  
  1808 The Danish brig Lougen, Lt. Peter F. Wulff, and 4 gunboats under Sub Lt. Fønss captures the British brig HMS Seagull (16), R. Cathcart, off Flekkerø in Norway.  
  1809 Boats of HMS Bellerophon (74), Cptn. Samuel Warren, carried Russian batteries at Hango.  
  1812 Boats of HMS Briseis (10), Cptn. John Ross, re-captured British merchant Urania from Pillau roads in the Baltic  
  1864 USS Kearsarge sinks Confederate raider Alabama off France   
20 June 1743 HMS Centurion (50), Cptn. George Anson, took Nuestra Senora del Caba Donga (42), Admiral Don Geronimo Montero, worth £400,000 off Cape Spiritu Santo. top
  1781 HMS Castor (32) and HMS Crescent (28), Cptn. T. Packenham, Lt. John Bligh (act.), badly damaged from a previous engagement taken by French Gloire (40) and Friponne (36). HMS Flora (36), Cptn. William Pere Williams, escaped  
  1783 The Battle of Cuddalore. British fleet of 18 ships, under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes, engaged French fleet of 15 ships, under the Bailli de Suffren, off the coast of India. It took place after peace had been signed but before the news had reached India. It was the final battle of the American Revolutionary War.  
  1798 HM Brig Victorieuse (12), Edward Stirling Dickson, captures the French privateer Trois Couleurs (4) off Trinidad  
  1809 HMS Agamemnon (64), Cptn. Jonas Rose, ran on shore and wrecked in Maldonado Roads, Rio de la Plata.  

Fifteen U.S. gunboats engage HMS Junon (38), Cptn. James Sanders, HMS Narcissus (32), Cptn. John Richard Lumley, and HMS Barrossa (36), Cptn. William Henry Shirreff, in Hampton Roads, VA.

Capture of Dignano by boats of HMS Elizabeth (74), Cptn. Leveson Gower.

  1815 Trials of Fulton I, built by Robert Fulton, are completed in New York. This ship would become the US Navy's first steam-driven warship.  
  1822 HMS Drake Sloop (10), Charles Adolphus Baker, wrecked off the coast of Newfoundland.  
21 June 1588 First engagement between English ships and the Spanish Armada top
  1810 Manado surrendered to HMS Dover (38), Cptn. Edward Tucker.  
22 June 1798 HMS Aurora (28), Capt. Henry Digby, destroyed French corvette Egalite (20) top
  1807 HMS Leopard (50), Cptn. Humphries, fired on USS Chesapeake (36), Cptn Barron, off the coast of Maryland  
  1813 Unsuccessful attack by boats of British squadron under Admiral Warren on Craney Island at Portsmouth, Virginia.  
  1865 Confederate raider Shenandoah fires last shot of Civil War in Bering Strait  
23 June 1795 Lord Bridport's victory over Vice-admiral Villaret-Joyeuse off L'Orient.                  top
  1798 HMS Rover ran aground off Gulf of St. Lawrence.  
  1800 Boats of Rear Ad. Sir John B. Warrens's squadron, HMS Renown (74) Cptn. Eyles, HMS Fisgard (44), Cptn. T. Byam Martin, and HMS Defence (74), Cptn. Lord H. Paulet, attacked a convoy in the Quimper River. When the enemy retired up stream they landed and blew up a battery and other works.  
  1808 HMS Porcupine (22), Cptn. Hon. Henry Duncan, drove ashore and destroyed a French vessel at Civita Vecchia.  
  1812 HMS Belvidera (36), Cptn. Richard Byron, engaged and escaped from USS President (44), Commodore John Rodgers, USS Congress (38), Cptn. John Smith, and USS United States (44), Stephen Decatur.  
  1813 Boats of HMS Castor (32), Cptn. Charles Dilkes, cut out French privateer Fortune off Catalonia.  
24 June 1746 HMS Saltash (14) foundered off Beachy Head top
  1795 HMS Dido (28), Cptn. George Henry Towry, and HMS Lowestoffe (32), Cptn.Robert Gambier Middleton, engage the French frigates Minerve (42), Cptn. Jean-Baptiste Perrée, and Artémise (40), Cptn. Charbonnier, eventually capturing Minerve  
  1801 HMS Swiftsure captured by Dix Aout, &c.  
  1833 USS Constitution enters drydock at Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA, for overhaul. The ship was saved from scrapping after public support rallied to save the ship following publication of Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem, "Old Ironsides."   
25 June 1667 Victory over anchored French Squadron, under Admiral Joseph de la Barre, at Martinique by British fleet, under Rear-Admiral Sir John Harman. At least eight French ships were burnt and several more were sunk. top
  1746 British squadron, under Cptn. Edward Peyton, engaged French fleet, under Comte de La Bourdonnais, in E. Indies.  
  1754 John Jervis (later Earl of St Vincent) moved to HMS Severn (50) as a Midshipman  
  1755 HMS Mars (64), Cptn. John Amherst, grounded and wrecked while going into harbour at Halifax NS.  

HMS Dido (28), Cptn. George Henry Towry, and HMS Lowestoffe (32), Cptn. Robert Gambier Middleton, engaged Minerve (40) and Artemise (36).  Minerve was taken.

  1803 HMS Endymion (50), Cptn. Hon. Charles Paget, captured French corvette Bacchante (18), Lt. Vaisseau.  
  1808 HMS Porcupine (22), Cptn. Hon. Henry Duncan, captured French letter of marque schooner Nouvelle Enterprise (6) south of Bastia.  
  1809 HMS Cyane (22), Cptn. Thomas Staines, and HMS Espoir (18), Robert Mitford, engaged Ceres.  
  1813 Capture of Hampton by boats of HMS Marlborough (74), Cptn. C. B. Ross, and squadron.  
26 June 1748 HMS Fowey (44), Cptn. Francis William Drake, wrecked in the Gulf of Florida. top
  1766 HMS Saint Lawrence lost, off Ingonish  
  1798 HMS Seahorse (38), Cptn. Edward James Foote, captured French frigate Sensible (32) off the coast of Sicily  
  1799 HMS Alcmene (32), Cptn. H. Digby, captured French privateer Conrageux (28), Jean Bernard, off the coast of Portugal.  

Boats of HMS Port Mahon (18), Samuel Chambers, cut out Spanish letter of marque brig San Josef (7) from the harbour of Banes in Cuba.

  1808 Boats of HMS Standard (64), Cptn. Thomas Harvey, captured Italian gunboat Volpe and French dispatch boat Leger off Corfu.  
27 June 1588 Spanish Armada arrives at Calais top
  1796 HMS Inconstant (36) saved British residents at Leghorn.  
  1803 Boats of HMS Loire (40), Cptn. Frederick Maitland, captured Venteux (10) at anchor under a shore battery in the Isle de Bas Roads.  
  1811 HMS Guadaloupe (16), Joseph Swabey Tetley, engaged French Tactique (16) and Guepe (8) off the Cap de Creux.  
28 June 1588 Fireship attack on Spanish Armada top
  1720 HMS Milford (32), Cptn. Peter Chamberlain, driven ashore and wrecked on the north west end of Cuba.  
  1776 HMS Actaeon (28), Cptn. Christopher Atkins, part of a squadron under Commodore Sir Peter Parker, grounded taking up position to attack Fort Moultrie at the southern end of Sullivan's Island, Charleston, SC, and was set on fire when she could not be got off.  
  1783 HMS Nymph (14) burnt by accident at Tortola  
  1794 HMS Rose (28) wrecked on Rocky-Point, Jamaica.  
  1801 Boats of HMS Mercury (28), Cptn. T Rogers, and HMS Corso (14), William Ricketts, captured pirate vessel Tigre (8) among the rocks of the Tremite Islands in the Adriatic.  
  1803 HMS Goliath (74), Capt. C. Brisbane, captured Mignonne (16), Cptn. J. P. Bargeaud, and HMS Hercule (74) engaged Poursuivante (40) off San Domingo              

Boats of HMS Amphion (32), Cptn. William Hoste, and HMS Cerberus (32), Cptn Henry Whitby, and HMS ACTIVE (38), Cptn. James Alexander Gordon, took two forts and cut out 25 vessels from the harbour at Grao. 

  1811 HMS Firm Brig (12), Lt. John Little, grounded on a bank off the coast of France and set on fire to avoid capture..  

USS Wasp (22), Cptn. Johnston Blakely, captures HMS Reindeer (18), William Manners (Killed in Action), in the Atlantic

HMS Leopard (50), wrecked near the Island of Anticosti, Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  1849 The Danish brig St. Croix, Lt Cmdr Peter C. Holm, on blockade in the Baltic, fights the Prussian paddle steamer Preussischer Adler, Commodore Schroeder, off Hela in the Bay of Danzig.  
  1865 CSS Shenandoah captures 11 American whalers in one day  
29 June 1758 HMS Renown (30) took French Guirlande (22) top
  1798 HMS Pique (38), Cptn. David Milne, and HMS Jason (46), Cptn. Charles Stirling, captured Seine (42). They all grounded near Pointe de la Trenche and Pique was bilged so it was necessary to destroy her.  
  1811 4 Danish gunboats, under Lt. Broder K. B. Wigelsen, took HMS Safeguard (14), Lt. Thomas England, off Randers fjord.  
30 June 1690 Battle of Beachy Head. French fleet of 75 ships, under Comte de Tourville, defeated Anglo-Dutch fleet of 56 ships, under the Earl of Torrington. The Anglo-Dutch fleet lost 11 ships. top
  1797 Richard Parker, President of the "Floating Republic" at the Nore, hanged aboard HMS Sandwich (98)  
  1803 HMS Vanguard (74) Cptn. James Walker, and HMS Cumberland (74) captured French frigate Creole.  
  1808 HMS Capelin Schooner (6), Lt. Josias Bray, wrecked on sunken rock off entrance of Brest Harbor.  
  1814 USS Alligator schooner sank in Port Royal Sound during a heavy storm  
  1815 USS Peacock, Cptn. Lewis Warrington,  takes HMS Nautilus, last action of the War of 1812   

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*Dates of events prior to September 1752 may be quoted differently in some countries as both the Julian and Gregorian calendars were in use by countries. Calendars were regularised when Britain passed the Calendar Act of 1751 An Act for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use.

© 2008-2023 David Hayes (Astrodene)